Domain Name Basics|
Before we discuss domain names, we need to understand Internet address. Internet Address also known
as IP address (version 4) is a 32-bit numeric address written as four 8-bit numbers separated by dots.
Each 8-bit number represents a number between 0 and 255. An IP address is numerical address used by
computers to uniquely identify a computer that are interconnected by the Internet. An IP address is
a globally unique address that anyone in the world can find your computer.
The Internet Address is composed of numbers that the computers can understand, but they are hard for
humans to remember. To make Internet address human friendly, domain names are introduced. A domain
name is mapped to an IP address by a domain name system (or DNS), so that it is easily understood by
both humans and computers. The domain names and Internet addresses are administered by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
The domain name is a human readable Internet Address. To setup a web site or create an email address,
you'll need a domain name. A domain name is comprised of at least two parts: top level domain (TLD)
and second level domain (SLD). The TLDs are administered by IANA,
and they are pre-determined. The SLDs are domain names that an individual or an organization can
register through a domain registrar for it's own use. The third, fourth and (so on) level domain
names are arbituary domain names that are assigned by the SLD owners to further organize its domain
Top Level Domains
Top level domain names are divided into three categories: generic TLD (gTLD), country code
TLD (ccTLD) and infrastructure TLD. The generic top-level domains are the ones most frequently
used on the web, and they are as follows:
- .COM: Intended for commercial organizations, but are not mandated.
- .NET: Intended for Internet prviders, but are not mandated.
- .ORG: Intended for non-profit organizations, but are not mandated.
- .EDU: Reserved for the United States educational organizations.
- .GOV: Reserved for the United States government agencies.
- .MIL: Reserved for the United States military.
- .INT: Reserved for international organizations established by treaty.
- .BIZ: Intended for businesses, and are mandated.
- .INFO: Intended for informational addresses.
- .MOBI: Intended for mobile devices and mobile web.
- .NAME: Intended for individuals.
- .PRO: Intended for professionals.
- .COOP: Reserved for cooperative associations.
- .AERO: Reserved for members of the air transport industry.
- .MUSEUM: Intended for museums.
The ccTLDs are reserved for countries and their dependent territories. Each two letter contry code
is designated to an individual country. A list of all country codes can be found in Root-Zone Whois Information page of the IANA website.
The infrastructure TLD is limited to ".arpa" domain name, and is used execlusively for Internet
infrastructure purposes. The .ARPA is
the Address Routing Parameter Area domain, and is commonly used for
reverse domain name resolution purpose.
Second Level Domains
The second-level domain names (SLDs) in combination with top-level domain name (TLD) are the ones
that can be registered through ICANN acredited registrars. The
domain name is registered for a
period of time between 1 year and up to a maximum of 10 years. Think of domain name registration
as a right to use the name for a specific period of time (as in lease), and as long as you renew
before its expiration, the name belongs to you.
Domain names must be at least two characters long and no more than 63 characters maximum, excluding
the top-level domain name. The characters can include any combination of letters, numbers or hyphens.
The first and last character cannot be a hyphen. Domain names are not case-sensitive.
Third Level Domains (and beyond)
The third (fourth, and ...) level domain names are also known as subdomain (or canonical) names. A
subdomain is part of a domain name created by the SLD owners to create additional names (addresses).
A purpose of creating additional subdomain names is to create globally unique addresses within
its organization so that they can be accessed globally. The most common subdomain name is www,
as in www.topwebhosts.org. Creating additional subdomains allow an organization to make more
computers available on the Internet (remember, the domain name is a human friendly Internet Address)
by creating globally unique addresses.